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Intercultural Learning at Primary Level
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Seminar paper from the year 2005 in the subject English - Pedagogy, Didactics, Literature Studies, grade: 2,3, Bielefeld University, 4 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The discussion about aims, content and methods of foreign language lessons resulted in demands for a broader integration of intercultural learning. Jörg Roche, who dedicated one chapter of his book Interkulturelle Sprachdidaktik: Eine Einführung to the role of intercultural language didactics in the teaching and learning of foreign languages, makes specific suggestions about restructuring the traditional concepts of foreign language lessons. According to him, the best learning success is achieved when intercultural learning and foreign language teaching are integrated. He explains conclusively that language and culture are inseparably bound to one another. Roche also warns not to use isolated or poorly researched pieces of cultural information, since this would lead to a falsified image of the target culture and prevent the learners from authentic language use. Roche's appeal illustrates the growing need of intercultural communication. Young pupils in Germany do not only live in a country that maintains contact with cultures all over the world, but they are also part of a multicultural society that is mirrored by the school classes. Foreign language lessons offer the opportunity to help them deal with it and prepare them for living in a multicultural society. After the introduction of English as a foreign language as an obligatory school subject in the classes 3 and 4 of the primary schools in 2003, it is now possible for the young learners in Germany to exhaust their enormous language learning potential more effectively. However, how they should be taught, and what exactly, is still discussed extensively. The new school subject made it necessary to develop a new curriculum and new school books, which were supposed to meet the needs of the young foreign language learners and the conditions of the guidelines. Considering the textbooks Bumblebee 3 and Bumblebee 4 (Schroedel 2003) as examples, this paper examines in how far the school books concur with the regulations concerning intercultural learning. Of course, school books do not solely represent what is taught in the lessons; the way the teachers uses them and what they teach additionally must also be regarded for that. Yet, the books play a central role in the lessons. Tasks, content and especially the illustrations have much influence on how the lessons are perceived by the pupils. Furthermore, the pupils can take the books home where they can work autonomously.

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Intertextuality in Ken Russel's 'Gothic': The r...
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Seminar paper from the year 1998 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Literature, grade: 1-, Bielefeld University (Fakultät für Linguistik und Literaturwissenschaft), course: Motivgeschichte/Intertextualität: Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, 11 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The film Gothic starring Gabriel Byrne (in the role of Lord Byron), Julian Sands (Percy Bysshe Shelley), Natasha Richardson (Mary [Wollstonecraft Godwin] Shelley), Myriam Cyr (Claire Clairmont) and Timothy Spall (Dr John Polidori) and directed by Ken Russell was made in 1986. It is difficult to decide whether the film is a horror film or a period film because it contains elements of both genres. The viewer's judgement depends on his or her previous knowledge of the life of the characters. If the viewer does not recognize the relation between the elements and statements in the film and texts written by and about the protagonists he or she will feel Gothic to be mainly a horror film. In other words intertextuality plays an important role in Gothic. Therefore, the aim of this term paper is to analyze the intertextual relations between the film and various texts. Since there are many different concepts concerning intertextuality I will mostly focus on Julia Kristeva's idea of intertextuality in the first chapter. In the second chapter the literary historical aspects of Gothic will be examined. The film is set in 1816, i.e. in the second phase of the Romantic period. I will analyze how Ken Russell represents some of the characteristics of the Romantic period in his film. Among others, a motif in the film is the artificial being and the creation of an artificial being respectively. This motif is also the topic of Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein. The third chapter deals on the one hand with the question how the motif 'artificial being' is represented in Ken Russell's film and on the other h

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The concept of time in Peter Ackroyd's 'Hawksmoor'
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Seminar paper from the year 2000 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Literature, grade: 2,0, Bielefeld University (Fakultät für Linguistik und Literaturwissenschaft), course: Prosa der Postmoderne, 13 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Usually a novel contains a beginning, a middle and an end. That is what the reader expects from the majority of books. This convention is not only based on the presumption that only by this sequence of beginning, middle and end a reader will find the reading of a novel rewarding but there are also theoretical concepts demanding this structure. Mendilow points out that Aristotle was one of the first to stress the meaning of a general structure in a piece of literature. According to Aristotle [e]in Ganzes ist, was Anfang, Mitte und Ende hat. Ein Anfang ist, was selbst nicht mit Notwendigkeit auf etwas anderes folgt, nach dem jedoch natürlicherweise etwas anderes eintritt oder entsteht. Ein Ende ist umgekehrt, was selbst natürlicherweise auf etwas anderes folgt, und zwar notwendigerweise oder in der Regel, während nach ihm nichts anderes mehr eintritt. Eine Mitte ist, was sowohl selbst auf etwas anderes folgt als auch etwas anderes nach sich zieht. This concept is true for realistic novels but it falls short for most of the postmodern novels. In this paper I will show how the structure of a linear plot is given up in Peter Ackroyd's novel Hawksmoor. The sequence of beginning, middle and end evokes that all events are linked by a chain of causality. In Hawksmoor the chain of causality and the linear concept of time are replaced by a circular concept of time. The events in the novel and in particular the murders cannot be explained by the principle of causality. In my paper I will analyse the concept of time in Ackroyd's novel. As a first step I will point out the rel

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Hiding Data - Selected Topics
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Devoted to information security, this volume begins with a short course on cryptography, mainly based on lectures given by Rudolf Ahlswede at the University of Bielefeld in the mid 1990s. It was the second of his cycle of lectures on information theory which opened with an introductory course on basic coding theorems, as covered in Volume 1 of this series. In this third volume, Shannon’s historical work on secrecy systems is detailed, followed by an introduction to an information-theoretic model of wiretap channels, and such important concepts as homophonic coding and authentication. Once the theoretical arguments have been presented, comprehensive technical details of AES are given. Furthermore, a short introduction to the history of public-key cryptology, RSA and El Gamal cryptosystems is provided, followed by a look at the basic theory of elliptic curves, and algorithms for efficient addition in elliptic curves. Lastly, the important topic of “oblivious transfer” is discussed, which is strongly connected to the privacy problem in communication. Today, the importance of this problem is rapidly increasing, and further research and practical realizations are greatly anticipated. This is the third of several volumes serving as the collected documentation of Rudolf Ahlswede’s lectures on information theory. Each volume includes comments from an invited well-known expert. In the supplement to the present volume, Rüdiger Reischuk contributes his insights. Classical information processing concerns the main tasks of gaining knowledge and the storage, transmission and hiding of data. The first task is the prime goal of Statistics. For transmission and hiding data, Shannon developed an impressive mathematical theory called Information Theory, which he based on probabilistic models. The theory largely involves the concept of codes with small error probabilities in spite of noise in the transmission, which is modeled by channels. The lectures presented in this work are suitable for graduate students in Mathematics, and also for those working in Theoretical Computer Science, Physics, and Electrical Engineering with a background in basic Mathematics. The lectures can be used as the basis for courses or to supplement courses in many ways. Ph.D. students will also find research problems, often with conjectures, that offer potential subjects for a thesis. More advanced researchers may find questions which form the basis of entire research programs.

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Epistemological and Social Problems of the Scie...
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I. Some Characteristic Features of the Passage From the 18th to the 19th Century 1. The following notes grew out of reflections which first led us to send out invitations to, and call for papers for, an interdisciplinary workshop, which took place in Bielefeld from 27th to 30th November, 1979. The status and character of this preface is therefore somewhat ambiguous: on the one hand it does not comment extensively on the articles to follow, on the other hand it could not have been conceived and written in the way it was without knowledge of all the contributions to this volum- which contains revised editions of papers for the workshop - nor without the cooperation of the participants in the above mentioned symposium. Furthermore, although the following may sound slightly programmatic and summary, we hope that it will be sufficiently explicit to provide some key words and concepts useful for further scholarly work. Perhaps the most important result of our efforts is the very structure of these notes: it is aimed at providing methodological orientations for the investigation of what turned out to be a very peculiar period in the history of science. xi H. N. Jahnke and M. Otte (eds.), Epistemological and Social Problems of the Sciences in the Early Nineteenth Century, xi-xlii. Copyright © 1981 by D. Reidel Publishing Company. xii H. N. JAHNKE ET AL.

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Hiding Data - Selected Topics
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Devoted to information security, this volume begins with a short course on cryptography, mainly based on lectures given by Rudolf Ahlswede at the University of Bielefeld in the mid 1990s. It was the second of his cycle of lectures on information theory which opened with an introductory course on basic coding theorems, as covered in Volume 1 of this series. In this third volume, Shannon's historical work on secrecy systems is detailed, followed by an introduction to an information-theoretic model of wiretap channels, and such important concepts as homophonic coding and authentication. Once the theoretical arguments have been presented, comprehensive technical details of AES are given. Furthermore, a short introduction to the history of public-key cryptology, RSA and El Gamal cryptosystems is provided, followed by a look at the basic theory of elliptic curves, and algorithms for efficient addition in elliptic curves. Lastly, the important topic of 'oblivious transfer' is discussed, which is strongly connected to the privacy problem in communication. Today, the importance of this problem is rapidly increasing, and further research and practical realizations are greatly anticipated. This is the third of several volumes serving as the collected documentation of Rudolf Ahlswede's lectures on information theory. Each volume includes comments from an invited well-known expert. In the supplement to the present volume, Rüdiger Reischuk contributes his insights. Classical information processing concerns the main tasks of gaining knowledge and the storage, transmission and hiding of data. The first task is the prime goal of Statistics. For transmission and hiding data, Shannon developed an impressive mathematical theory called Information Theory, which he based on probabilistic models. The theory largely involves the concept of codes with small error probabilities in spite of noise in the transmission, which is modeled by channels. The lectures presented in this work are suitable for graduate students in Mathematics, and also for those working in Theoretical Computer Science, Physics, and Electrical Engineering with a background in basic Mathematics. The lectures can be used as the basis for courses or to supplement courses in many ways. Ph.D. students will also find research problems, often with conjectures, that offer potential subjects for a thesis. More advanced researchers may find questions which form the basis of entire research programs.

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Democracy on a global level - feasible or utopi...
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Seminar paper from the year 2006 in the subject Politics - International Politics - General and Theories, grade: 1,3, Bielefeld University, course: Global Governanance by Global Frameworks, 24 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: In this written homework I will use the term 'globalization' to 'describe the growth and spread in investment, trade, and production, the introduction of new technology, and the spread of democracy around the world'. (ibid. 2003: 1). It has to be noticed that this economic globalization 'would affect not only production, finance, technology, media and fashion, but also the international political system, leading also to a globalization of democracy' (Archibugi 2004: 438) Here it is important to note, that on the one hand I support the claim that the ideas of democracy are globalized, on the other hand , however, there has to be kept in mind, the constraint that democracy is only global as a formal or structural blueprint. The flexible characteristics and focuses of democracy differ in many ways; therefore it is not possible to state that an all-embracing final democratic model exists. According to Pauly the impact of globalization shortens national capacities so that they become 'inefficient regulators of markets that cross their borders, ..' (Pauly 2000: 4) This raises questions about the democratic legitimacy of an increasingly internationally operating government and international institutions with an indefinite and not clearly defined designation of legitimacy caused by a weak democratic proportion on a global level. Additionally one can observe a rapidly growing number of non-state actors and rising influence like TNCs and NGOs. Approaches concerning the processing of these topics are described under the wide field of 'global governance'.The theoretical discussion and their discourse offer help to take a look on today's institutionsand their problems, the role of the state and the possible implementation approaches of theoretical ideas towards a democratic form of global governance. One solution, obviously, would be a transfer of states¿ sovereignty to a regional or global level. I will concentrate on the confrontation of two basic models of democracy beyond the nationstate, the Cosmopolitan Democracy and the Deliberative Democracy. Based on different normative assumptions they have different ideas of how to create a more adequate form of governance. I will present both concepts separately followed by an all-embracing valuation and a conclusion.

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The concept of time in Peter Ackroyd's 'Hawksmoor'
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Seminar paper from the year 2000 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Literature, grade: 2,0, Bielefeld University (Fakultät für Linguistik und Literaturwissenschaft), course: Prosa der Postmoderne, 13 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Usually a novel contains a beginning, a middle and an end. That is what the reader expects from the majority of books. This convention is not only based on the presumption that only by this sequence of beginning, middle and end a reader will find the reading of a novel rewarding but there are also theoretical concepts demanding this structure. Mendilow points out that Aristotle was one of the first to stress the meaning of a general structure in a piece of literature. According to Aristotle [e]in Ganzes ist, was Anfang, Mitte und Ende hat. Ein Anfang ist, was selbst nicht mit Notwendigkeit auf etwas anderes folgt, nach dem jedoch natürlicherweise etwas anderes eintritt oder entsteht. Ein Ende ist umgekehrt, was selbst natürlicherweise auf etwas anderes folgt, und zwar notwendigerweise oder in der Regel, während nach ihm nichts anderes mehr eintritt. Eine Mitte ist, was sowohl selbst auf etwas anderes folgt als auch etwas anderes nach sich zieht. This concept is true for realistic novels but it falls short for most of the postmodern novels. In this paper I will show how the structure of a linear plot is given up in Peter Ackroyd's novel Hawksmoor. The sequence of beginning, middle and end evokes that all events are linked by a chain of causality. In Hawksmoor the chain of causality and the linear concept of time are replaced by a circular concept of time. The events in the novel and in particular the murders cannot be explained by the principle of causality. In my paper I will analyse the concept of time in Ackroyd's novel. As a first step I will point out the relation of the novel to the historical figure Nicholas Hawksmoor and summarise briefly the two plots so that on this basis the analogies and recurrences in each plot can be better understood. Chapter 3 deals with the conception of characters because it is the repetition of characteristics, biographies and attitudes of the characters that illustrate best the linear concept of time. The character that is associated the most with this concept of time is the protagonist of the eighteenth-century plot Nicholas Dyer. Therefore, I choose this figure for a detailed analysis in chapter 4.

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Intertextuality in Ken Russel's 'Gothic': The r...
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Seminar paper from the year 1998 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Literature, grade: 1-, Bielefeld University (Fakultät für Linguistik und Literaturwissenschaft), course: Motivgeschichte/Intertextualität: Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, 11 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The film Gothic starring Gabriel Byrne (in the role of Lord Byron), Julian Sands (Percy Bysshe Shelley), Natasha Richardson (Mary [Wollstonecraft Godwin] Shelley), Myriam Cyr (Claire Clairmont) and Timothy Spall (Dr John Polidori) and directed by Ken Russell was made in 1986. It is difficult to decide whether the film is a horror film or a period film because it contains elements of both genres. The viewer's judgement depends on his or her previous knowledge of the life of the characters. If the viewer does not recognize the relation between the elements and statements in the film and texts written by and about the protagonists he or she will feel Gothic to be mainly a horror film. In other words intertextuality plays an important role in Gothic. Therefore, the aim of this term paper is to analyze the intertextual relations between the film and various texts. Since there are many different concepts concerning intertextuality I will mostly focus on Julia Kristeva's idea of intertextuality in the first chapter. In the second chapter the literary historical aspects of Gothic will be examined. The film is set in 1816, i.e. in the second phase of the Romantic period. I will analyze how Ken Russell represents some of the characteristics of the Romantic period in his film. Among others, a motif in the film is the artificial being and the creation of an artificial being respectively. This motif is also the topic of Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein. The third chapter deals on the one hand with the question how the motif 'artificial being' is represented in Ken Russell's film and on the other h

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